Original paper-HYPOCALCAEMIA, HYPOGLYCAEMIA, MACROSOMIA AND CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM IN A MALE OFFSPRING OF A MOTHER WITH OVERWEIGHT AND GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS - ABSTRACT
Authors: Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka 1, Sandra O. Edorhe 2
1 Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria
2 Neonatal Unit, Department of Nursing Services, St Philomena Catholic Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
This paper reports a case of a male infant born to a 32-year-old multiparous mother with overweight (BMI 28.5kg/m2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The mother had fasting hyperglycaemia (range 5.7- 6.0mmol/L) noted at 24 weeks of pregnancy and was managed with diet alone. There is no family history of diabetes mellitus and the mother did not have pre-eclampsia. Physical examination of the infant revealed macrosomia (birthweight, 4600g) and bilateral congenital cryptorchidism. The baby suffered severe hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 1.7mmol/L) and hypocalcaemia (total serum calcium 1.03mmol/L), manifesting with seizures. He was successfully managed with 10% dextrose water and calcium gluconate infusion, using standard protocol. His karyotype is 46 XY. The patient was discharged from admission at the age of 10 days and was referred to the paediatric endocrinologist at the tertiary hospital. By 8 weeks of age, the right testis was noticed to have descended into the right scrotum. At the age of 3 months, the left testis was still not palpable either in the inguinal canal or the scrotal sac. The patient was lost to follow up. Conclusion: Diet-treated maternal overweight in association with GDM could potentially increase the risk for hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and congenital cryptorchidism in the offspring, highlighting the need for physicians to assess for the presence of these morbidities in such infants.
Key words: Hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, cryptorchidism, macrosomia, gestational diabetes, maternal overweight, newborn